Established in: 1992
Size: 51,461 H, including 43 112,6 H of forests and woodlands (84%) and 3,600 H meadows and grasslands (7%)
Location: boroughs of Cisna (44% of the Park), Komańcza (28,1%), Baligród (17,7%), Solina (6,3 %), Zagórz (3,6 %) i Czarna (0,3%).
Ciśniańsko-Wetliński Natural Landscape Park protects natural and scenic value of the Western Bieszczady. It constitutes a natural western shield for the Bieszczady National Park, and they are both included in the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve.
The Park covers four almost parallel ranges going from north-west to south-east, getting higher towards the east, covered with dense network of rivers and streams running parallel to the mountain ranges or going crosswise.
Crests are visibly lifted; about twenty peaks are over thousand meters high, and nine exceed 1100 m. Coming from the south (from the Slovakian border) there is a long run of border range from the Łupkowska Pass to Rabia Skała (1199 m), and then a chain of gradually higher hills crossed with stream valleys from Wola Michowa to Roztoki Górne with two great hillocks, Matragona (990 m) and Hyrlata (1103). From Okrąglik (1101 m) situated on the border to the east there is a short crest called Wielka Grania Wopistów with Fereczata peak (1102 m), and to the north-west - impressive banks of Jasło (1153 m) and Małe Jasło (1102 m). Further up, following the narrow valley of Solinka river, there is a broad and wide-spread wooded complex of Wysoki Dział with peaks of Chryszczata (998 m), Wołosań (1071 m), Sasów (1010 m), Przysłupie (1006 m), and Feliszówka (1006 m). There is one more interesting mountain group screening the Cisna and Dołżyca valleys from the north-east, Łopiennik (1069 m) i Durna (979 m) range and massif of Falowa (965 m) and Czerenina (971m), which is separated from the range by the Solinka valley.
East Carpathian Mountains are unique due to vast high-mountain pastures, mountain meadows which were formed as a result of intense decay and erosion of the earth surface during the period of formation of these mountains resulting from, among others, sudden climate changes. They constitute interesting natural environment and characteristic element of the local landscape. Pastures of the Ciśniańsko-Wetliński Natural Landscape Park are not as grand as those located in the Bieszczady National Park, are positioned lower, and thus are hidden in forests to a higher degree, however, still constitute excellent viewing points. Viewing points from the meadows of Jasło, from Fereczata, Łopiennik, Płasza (1163 m), Dziurkowiec (1189) and many other peak meadows are highly recommended.
Eastern crags and monadnocks are very impressive. They are best viewed from the southern slopes of Paprotna (1199 m), under Płasza and at the Okrąglik. Natural sandstone run in the village of Rabe is under reserve protection as a unique geological formation.
The rivers of the Park may be observed with much enjoyment and aesthetic pleasure. The upper reaches flow in parallel to the mountain chains, with their channels getting deeper due to soft rock material in the valleys. Sometimes in the middle section, they change their direction at ninety degree angles and run through crests built of hard sandstone, creating picturesque gorges.
Solinka, the main river of the Park has plenty of gorges; some most beautiful of them are located between Matragona and Berd (1034 m), between Żubracze and Cisna, and near Buk and Terka.
Gorges appear also in Wetlina, for example near Pereszliba and along a particularly attractive section from Zawoj to Polanka, with Sine Wiry wild canyon under reserve protection, and along Osława between Jasieniowa and Chryszczata, near Prełuki, and along little Jabłonka near Dzidowa.
Moreover, countless mountain streams, sometimes without a name, are very appealing thanks to the shape of their valleys and variety of the waterfalls.
The main natural values of the Park include:
- altitudinal zonation of vegetation,
- mostly natural character of plant communities,
- reach composition of fauna and flora,
- places of species coexistence.
Within the Park there are approximately 940 species of vascular plants, including 170 mountain species, and among them 33 alpine and 43 subalpine. Within the territory of Komańcza borough, boundaries of eastern and western Carpathian vegetation meet.
Also, this area includes some xerothermic species. Plants are transitional and not uniform.
Western Carpathian species are represented by: Galium rotundifolium, Veratrum lobelianum Bernh, Aconitum variegatum, Polygala, and Crataegus laevigata (midland hawthorn).
East Carpathian species include: Aposeris foetida, Aconitum degenii, and Valeriana tripteris; xerothermic species include for example: Rosa gallica (French rose), Lithospermum officinale, Polygonatum odoratum (Angular Solomon's-seal), and Scilla bifolia.
Some of the most interesting and rare plants present in the Park include orchids, Phyllitis scolopendrium, Dianthus armeria, Digitalis glandiflora, Lilium martagon, and Gentianella ciliata.
Compact and to a large extent natural forest groups are of great importance for sustaining biological diversity. Therefore, those tree stands were granted the status of protective, water protective, soil protective and seedy forests.
Mountain beech forest with addition of fir, spruce, and sycamore dominate here. The most common are beech woods at typical subassembly with Cardamine glanduligera and Symphytum cordatum. Damp depressions in the slopes and spring areas are covered with sycamore and beech trees with Lunaria rediviva, and in the dry areas there are more beech woods with Festuca drymeia.
Extensive wood complexes are characterised by abundance of animal species. Composition and altitudinal zonation correspond to a certain degree to the layers of plants. Human activity had a significant influence on the shape of the fauna composition.
The most important fauna items of this area include numerous representatives of rare wild forest species, the most importantly brown bear, European bison, wolf and lynx. The area is also a habitat of many rare predatory bird species (for example golden eagle, short-toed snake eagle, lesser spotted eagle) and owls (for example eagle owl and Ural owl). Roe deer, red deer, and European pine marten are very common.
In terms of insects, the most distinct are colourful butterflies, most importantly old world swallowtail and scarce swallowtail, and rare rosalia longicorn.
The list of protected animals includes also numerous species of amphibians, reptiles, and fish. A numerous group of animals is connected with sites of varied degree of human impact on the environment, i.e. villages, deserted farms (e.g. bats, beech marten, swallow), etc.
Wildlife reserves within the Ciśniańsko-Wetliński National Landscape Park
|No.||Reserve name||Size (h):||Location||Protection purpose|
|1||Osława gorge near Duszatyn||322.45||Komańcza Borough, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate||Preservation for research, education and scenic reasons of the most beautiful section of the Osława river valley from Smolnik to Turzańsk|
|2||Zwiezło||2.20||Komańcza Borough, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate||Preservation for research and scenic reasons of two mountain lakes created through large landslips on the slope of Chryszczata mountain, as well as the forest submerged upon their formation|
|3||Gołoborze||13.90||Baligród Borough, Baligrów Forest Inspectorate||Rubble, characterised by varied degree of advancement of forest succession|
|4||Yew-trees at the Jawor Mountain||3.02||Baligród Borough, Baligród Forest Inspectorate||Preservation for research and educational reasons of the natural yew-tree habitat|
|5||Woronikówka||14.84||Baligród Borough, Baligród Forest Inspectorate||Preservation for research and educational reasons of the natural yew-tree habitat in the Western Bieszczady Mountains|
|6||Olszyna Łęgowa in Kalnica||13,69||Cisna Borough, Cisna Forest Inspectorate||Preservation for research and educational reasons of a fragment of mountain riparian forest with black alder|
|7||Sine Wiry||450.49||Boroughs: Cisna and Solina, Forest Inspectorates: Baligród and Cisna||Preservation for research, educational and scenic reasons of Wetlina river gorge with surrounding forest complex, with fragments of old beech and fir tree forest|
Nature monuments at the Ciśniańsko-Wetliński Natural Landscape Park
|No.||Type of monument||Location||Size|
|1||Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) (34 trees) Natural, relict habitat||Baligród Borough, Huczwice, Baligród Forest Inspectorate||age: 120-190 years|
|2||European ash||Cisna Borough, Wetlina||age: 210 years circumference: 603 cm height: 27 m|
|3||Knickpoint||Knickpoint on Olchowaty stream, formed of course-grain sandstone hieroglyphic beds, Komańcza Borough,||height: 8 m width: 10 m|
|4||Small-leaved lime||Komańcza Borough, Mików, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate, Mików Forest District, sec. 64d||circumference: 410 cm height: 30 m age: approximately 200 years|
|5||European ash||Komańcza Borough, Maniów, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate, Maniów Forest District, sec. 95j||circumference: 427 cm height: 23 m age: approximately 220 years|
|6||Douglas-fir||Komańcza Borough, Balnica, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate, Balnica Forest District, sec. 90o||circumference: 242 cm height: 32 m age: approximately 80 years|
|7||Douglas-fir||Komańcza Borough, Balnica, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate, Balnica Forest District, sec. 83a on the boundary with sec. 83f||circumference: 201 cm height: 32 m age: approximately 80 years|
|8||"Bulgotek Spring" - inanimate nature monument (sulphide spring)||Komańcza Borugh, Mików, Komańcza Forest Inspectorate, Duszatyn Forest District, sec.62c||oval basin 0.3 m in diameter,|
The area of Bieszczady Mountains due to its torment history of the 20th century was deprived of its traditional and unique cultural heritage created through the centuries. This also applies to the Ciśniańsko-Wetliński Natural Landscape Park. Before displacements in the mid-20th century, the local people consisted mainly of Ruthenians - Lemks and Boykos. It is assumed that they were divided by Wysoki Dział massif. The Lemks lived to the west from this range, the Boykos to the east. These mountain people belonged to the eastern Christian tradition, creating interesting culture of which only scarce remnants survived to the present day.
Selected historic structures
Orthodox and Catholic Churches:
Łopienka – brick Orthodox church, probably from the first half of the 19th century, destroyed to the large extent, rebuilt in the 1990s; up to the time of displacements, Łopienka was the most important place of Virgin Mary cult in Bieszczady Mountains, due to the fact that legendary Virgin Mary icon believed to be miraculous, from the first half of 18th century, was kept here (currently kept in the church in Polańczyk, only a copy still in Łopienka); masses are celebrated for tourists on major holidays and every Sunday throughout the tourist season; former Orthodox church is located on the property of the Roman-Catholic parish of Górzanka - tel. 013 46 925 81; exceptionally picturesque valley of the village (no longer existing) was also given a status of a historic object,
Roztoki Dolne - wooden Orthodox church from 1830,
Smolnik - brick Orthodox church from 1806,
Turzańsk - wooden Orthodox church from 1803, next to the church there is a wooden bell-tower - highest one in the Polish part of Carpathian Mountains,
Cisna - brick church from 1914
Balnica - brick chapel from mid-19th century, rebuilt from ruins (next to a miraculous spring),
Maniów – brick chapel from approximately 1914,
Rabe – at the so called Synarewo, shrine from approximately 1920,
old wooden houses can be found in Smolnik, Turzańsk, and others,
Bieszczady Forestry Railway:
one of unique historic attractions of the Park is narrow-gauge Bieszczady Forestry Railway, consisting of a transport system with bridges, culverts, retaining walls, trains, stations, roundhouse,
the Railway dates back to 1890 when a railway line was constructed between Nowy Łupków and Cisna (Majdan); the originators of this venture were Austrian entrepreneurs and Lviv City Council; the first train travelled the route in 1898,
at the main station in Majdan there is a museum section dedicated to the history of the Bieszczady Railway; Bieszczady Forestry Railway Foundation Office - tel. 13 46 863 35.
Red trail (main one in Bieszczady) section from Prełuki via Chryszczata, Wołosań, Cisna, Jasło, Okrąglik to Smerek.
Blue trail (border) from Nowe Łupkowo via Wysoki Groń, Stryb, Przełęcz nad Roztokami, Okrąglik to Rabia Skała (boundary of the Bieszczady National Park).
Blue trail (connecting) from Baligrod via Durna to Łopiennik.
Black trail leads from Jaworne via Jabłonki, Łopiennik, Falowa to Wysokie Berdo (boundary of the Bieszczady National Park).
Yellow trail from Rabia Skała through Jawornik, Stare Sioło (to Przełęcz Orłowicza in the Bieszczady National Park).
Tourist trails, nature and educational trails:
„Gołoborze” (length 0.5 km),
„Woronikówka” (length 1 km),
„Sine Wiry” (2 trails, length 3 + 0.9 km),
„Cross-border Forest Educational Trail Udava – Solinka” – section along the valley of former Balica village, length 6.0 km.
network of trails under "Bieszczady - Green Bicycle" project
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